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Volume 4 Issue 8

 

 

S.No
Article Title & Author Name
Page
1.
Kinetics of lycopene and β-carotene extraction from tomato skin in presence of oleic acid by near critical liquid CO2
Dafina Karaj ||, Altin Mele

Abstract: In this study we investigated the extraction of lycopene and β-carotene from tomato skin using near critical liquid carbon dioxide in the presence of oleic acid as modifier. The experiments were carried out in a Jennings-type autoclave after the Soxhlet principle with and without modifier at 299 K, using as solvent liquid carbon dioxide under its vapour pressure of 64 bar. The extraction yields and the lycopene and β-carotene content of the liquid CO2 extracts were determined after 0.5, 1, 3, every three hours, up to 24 hours of extraction. HPLC-DAD was used for the quantification of the lycopene and β-carotene in the extracts. The presence of the modifier improves the extractability of lycopene (1.16-1.45 μg/g sample) but strains that of β-carotene (1.6-0.96 μg/g sample). Using the oleic acid as co-solvent has a beneficial role in the stability of cis isomer of lycopene (0.19-0.067 μg/g sample)
Key words: Lycopene, β-carotene, oleic acid, extraction, near critical liquid CO2.
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Dafina Karaj, Altin Mele - Kinetics of lycopene and β-carotene extraction from tomato skin in presence of oleic acid by near critical liquid CO2 - published at: "International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 8, January 2015 Edition".
01-05
2.
Drying Of Pepper with the Aid of Solar Energy Dryer
John .U. Manukaji

Abstract: Using the sun to dry crops and grains is one of the oldest and most widely used applications of solar energy. The simplest and least expensive technique is to allow crops to dry naturally in the field, or to spread grain and fruit out in the sun after harvesting. More sophisticated solar dryers protect grain and fruit, reduce losses, dry faster and more uniformly, and produce a better quality product than open air methods.Pepper is a universal spicing agent used to add flavor to many delicacies. It is grown universally throughout the world. It could be used both fresh and dried. In advanced countries where good storage systems occur, farmer that experience bumper harvest could easily preserve their product in its fresh state for a very long time. Whereas in Africa where good, effective and efficient storage systems are lacking, most farmers that experience bumper harvest preserve most of their pepper in dried state. The current process of drying pepper in the rural African setting is crude, unhygienic and exposes the pepper to birds, rodents and other animals. A designed and constructed solar pepper dryer was able to dry50kg of fresh pepper to preservation level within three days. The dryer comprised of two chambers (the air heater and the storage bin). Using natural convection, an average wind speed of 4.50m/s and an average solar intensity of 776w/m2 , it dried 50kg of fresh pepper, reducing its moisture content by 83% from its original value. The dryer could also be used to dry other related fresh crops.
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John .U. Manukaji - Drying Of Pepper with the Aid of Solar Energy Dryer - published at: "International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 8, January 2015 Edition".
06-13
3.
Simple and Inexpensive Hobbing for the General Shop
Robert H. Sturges, Jr.

Abstract: Gearmaking is typically the province of specialty enterprises due to the substantial investment in particular machine tools designed for the purpose. General lathes and milling machines do not lend themselves to fine gearmaking, although wire EDM is becoming more widely used and can serve in this capacity according to the limits of its articulated degrees of freedom. In this article, we introduce a new, simplified method of generating precision gears of the spur, worm, or helical types that has been adapted for general purpose milling machine use. The method can use standard taps to make gears of standard 30-degree pressure angles, ACME taps to create standard 14-1/2 degree pressure angles, as well as standard hobs for 20-degree or metric gear standards.
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Robert H. Sturges, Jr. - Simple and Inexpensive Hobbing for the General Shop - published at: "International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 8, January 2015 Edition".
14-22
4.
Challenges Regarding Management Practice Of Cement On Construction Sites North-Eastern Nigeria
Arinze N. A.||, Dammo.M. N.||, Isa A.||, Deborah, J. M.||, Aji. A.Band ||, G. B. YUSUF

Abstract: Cement management is particularly problematicby selected contractors in Maiduguri.This paper is written to fill a void created by the absence of proper cement management on construction sites. To managing a productive cost efficient and site efficient cement management is very essential.Research showed that, 89%, of the contractors manage and concentrate on cement operations on the site; 37.1% of the contractors employ qualified stores operation officers; 71% of the contractors calculate the quantity of cement required before purchasing; 27.7% of the contractors have poor mechanisms in place to engage cement suppliers; 78.9% of the contractors experience delay in cement delivery; 90.6% of the contractors inspect cement on arrival to site; 78.9% of the contractors s in terms of protecting cement from damage during storage; 41.2% of the contractors have average mechanisms in place to reduce wastage of cement on site; 86.6% of the contractors have enough mechanisms in place to protect cement from theft on site. From the results, it was concluded generally, management practices of cement is poor. The poor performance were resulted from contractors profits are eroded and they devise sharp practices using poor quality and inadequate quantity of materials to execute jobs. This practices lead to project failures, early maintenance needs and cost overruns from the clients‟ stance.Therefore the proper management can improve the productivity and cost efficiency of acement management to achieve better project delivery
Key words: Management practice,Cement, Construction Site,North-eastern Nigeria.
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Arinze N. A., Dammo.M. N., Isa A., Deborah, J. M., Aji. A.Band , G. B. YUSUF - Challenges Regarding Management Practice Of Cement On Construction Sites North-Eastern Nigeria - published at: "International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 8, January 2015 Edition".
23-26
5.
Effect of time on performance of Jordanian sport institutions
Abedelmajed Banihani

Abstract: The aimed of this study was to find out the reality of time management within administrators in the Jordanian sports institutions as well as knowledge of managerial style in their management of their time and also to know the obstacles that stand without management administrators in sports institutions of their time correctly, in addition to be aware of the necessary and appropriate solutions to overcome the obstacles facing administrators in their work. The study sample consisted of 40 administrative workers in the Jordanian sports institutions represented by the faculties of Physical Education in Jordan. The researcher used the descriptive and analytical approach, and designed questionnaire for the purposes of this study to collected data, its used statistical analysis (SPSS) such as (Chi-square tests and Spearman correlation tests and standard deviation) to answer study questions. The study showed multiple results as there is a loss of time for the effect on administrative performance, and the presence of the effect of the constraints of time management on the performance of administrators. The results also showed the influence of obstacles and solutions of time management on the performance of administrators in sports institutions. The study recommends that, give more interest on the constraints of time management and increasing studies on theoretical aspects of management time and focus on the meaning of time and confirm the importance of training on change habits and behaviors that lead to wasted time.
Key words: Jordanian sport institutions, Time, obstacles, management
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Abedelmajed Banihani - Effect of time on performance of Jordanian sport institutions - published at: "International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 8, January 2015 Edition".
27-32
6.
Analysis of Spectrum Sensing By Using Energy Detection Technique in Cognitive Radio
Kirtibala Shinde,|| Madhukar Deshmukh

Abstract: In wireless technologies the importance of spectrum is rapidly increases hence traffic of spectrum is also increases day by day. However, it seems that the current technologies do not utilize the licensed spectrum bands efficiently (6).So, energy detection in cognitive radio is proposed to improve the spectrum utilization. Cognitive Radios are the secondary users of the allocated spectrum bands for the primary users. In the cognitive radio system, the signal detection technique is required for spectrum sensing in order to sense the occupied and vacant bands. The challenge of spectrum sensing is the detection of poor signals in the presence of noise and interference (7). In this paper, have evaluated the performance of energy detection system under the real noise at -10dB, -15dB & -20dB SNR using energy detection. In general Energy detector is the one of the method used in spectrum sensing due to its simplicity; it requires no need of synchronization and knowledge of transmission information through the transmitter.
Key words: Cognitive Radio, Spectrum Utilization, Hypotheses, Pd, Pfa, AWGN, White Spaces
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Kirtibala Shinde,|| Madhukar Deshmukh - Analysis of Spectrum Sensing By Using Energy Detection Technique in Cognitive Radio - published at: "International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 8, January 2015 Edition".
33-40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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