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|1.||Survival Analysis Using Split Plot in Time Models
Omar Hikmat Abdulla, Khawla Mustafa sadik
Several experimental situations give rise to analyzing time to response on observational units (survival data) using split plot in time models. The general structure of such experiments is that the observation of the time of occurrence of an event (called a death, failure, or response) is of interest, the observational units are grouped into whole units and the treatments are randomized to whole units if time to the occurrence of an event T is continuous random variable then whole units would be considered as subsamples. If time response was grouped into intervals in the above setting, then the sufficient statistics in this case would be the counts of observed occurrences of an event (number of deaths failure) within intervals. The experiment can then be viewed as a split plot over time where time intervals periods are subunits and whole units would be the same as in continuous time setting, and the response variable is some function of the counts.
Keywords:––survival analysis, experimental situations, random variable, response variable .
|2.||Motor Vehicle Used Tire Conversion into Fuel Using Thermal Degradation Process with Ferric Carbonate Catalyst
Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid
The disposal of motor vehicle scrap tires is currently a major environmental and economical big issue. Recently estimates of the annual arise of scrap tires in North America are about 2.5 million tonnes, in European Union about 2.0-2.5 million tonnes, and in Japan about 0.5-1.0 million tonnes. In China, more than 1.0 million tonnes per year of tires are generated, which results in about 0.22 million tonnes of used tires per year. Unfortunately, most of these scrap tires are simply dumped in the open place and in landfills in our country. Open dumping may result in accidental fires with highly toxic emissions or may act as breeding grounds for insects. Landfills full of tires are not acceptable to the environment because tires do not easily degrade naturally. It can remain as a long period into land fill. In recent years, many attempts have been made to find new ways to recycle tires, i.e., tire grinding and crumbling to recycle rubber powders and tire incineration to supply thermal energy. During incineration is creating also harmful toxic gases and this process is not environmental friendly. Natural State Research has establishes new method for converting all type of motor vehicle used tire into fuel energy. Because this waste tire made by rubber and petroleum mixture. The experiment has been carried out on the motor vehicle used tire in the thermal degradation process in a stainless steel reactor at 200 to 420 ºC with ferric carbonate catalyst. By using this process was collect liquid fuel, tar and light gas (C1-C4). Fuel analysis purpose was use GC/MS equipment. This tire to fuel could be used for feed stock refinery for further modified fuel energy.
Keywords:––motor vehicle tire, energy, fuel, thermal degradation, GC/MS, FT-IR, conversion
|3.||Information Theory and its Application to Pattern Recognition in Image Processing
Yahia Sabri Al-Halabi
Pattern recognition is a very growing field in computer science. This research describes a technique for the assessment of information contents of pattern. It discusses the use of information theory measures in pattern recognition problems. Also, an iterative techniques such as fixed point iterative method or binary search method are ideal to be used to find pattern. Information theory is closely associated with a collection of pure and applied disciplines that have been investigated and reduced to engineering practice under a variety of topics throughout the world over the past half century or more: adaptive systems, anticipatory systems, artificial intelligence, complex systems, complexity science, cybernetics, informatics, machine learning, along with systems sciences of many descriptions. Information theory is a broad and deep computer and mathematical theory, with equally broad and deep applications, amongst which is the vital field of coding theory. This research applies a technique used to assess the information to the recognition capability and to increase the efficiency of the pattern recognition related with information theory. Entropy and conditional entropy have been used for learning models and designing inference algorithms. Many techniques and algorithms are developed over the last decades. Most of them involve extraction some of the information that describes a pattern. Results obtained that the computed orientation information contents agree with the theory, which is in the limit goes to zero, in case of orientation pattern and that the information contends depend strongly on size and information. Using fixed point iteration technique is new method to be used to find area of pattern depending on shifting and matching. Application of the entropy, fundamentals of information theory, assessment of the translational and rotational information contents of patterns, and assessment of the total information contents used in this technique prove that this technique is suitable for recognition problems and that information theory measures, are an important tool for pattern recognition using iterative fixed foint application.
Keywords:––Information Theory, Entropy, Fixed Point, Rotational and Translational, Pattern.
|4.||Improvement of Dynamic Performance of Multi Area System under Load Following Employing FACTS Devices
A. Suresh Babu, Ch.Saibabu, S.Sivanagaraj
The enhancement of dynamic performance of load following based hydrothermal system under open market employing Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is presented in this paper. The SSSC and SMES have been modeled and an attempt has been made to incorporate these devices in the two area system thus improving the dynamic response of the system. The effect of these devices on the system is demonstrated with the help of computer simulations. A systematic method has also been demonstrated for the modeling of these components in the system. Computer simulations reveal that due to the presence of SSSC and SMES, the dynamic performance of the system in terms of settling time, overshoot and peak time is greatly improved than that of the system with SMES only.
Keywords:––Hydrothermal system, Open market system, Load Following, SMES, SSSC.
An Approach towards Developing an Efficient Software Cost Estimation System Using Fuzzy and Analogy Methods
Software development cost estimation is important for effective project management. Many models have been introduced to predict software development cost. In this paper, a novel emotional COnstructive Cost MOdel II (COCOMO II) has been proposed for software cost estimation. In COCOMO II only the project characteristics are considered, whereas the characteristics of team members are also important factors. Hence our proposed method is effectively estimated the software effort and the cost by employing analogy with fuzzy based methods. In order to overcome all these difficulties of existing systems, in the software cost estimation process, we proposed an efficient software cost estimation system based on fuzzy analogy. In this, we have developed and validated a set of candidate measures for software projects similarity. These measures are based on fuzzy sets, fuzzy reasoning and linguistic quantifiers. A new approach to estimate effort by analogy when software projects are described either by numerical or categorical data. The normal procedure for analogy is not applicable for categorical data. So a new approach which can be seen as a Fuzzification of the classical approach of estimation by analogy. The proposed method will applicable to Function Point Metric also. It easy to generate rules in fuzzy analogy method. The fuzzy analogy based cost estimation will overcome the multi co-linearity problem. The effort can be estimated based on the emotional characteristics of the employees in the projects. The neuroticism characters highly affect the performance of the cost estimation system. Thus our proposed method will give better performance when compared to these recent papers. Our method will overcome all the drawbacks of these previous methods.
|6.||Passive Force on Retaining Wall Supporting Φ Backfill
Considering Curvilinear Rupture Surface
Sima Ghosh, Nabanita Datta
The passive resistance of retaining walls denotes the stability of the wall against failure. Most of the available
methods for calculating the passive earth pressure are based on linear failure surface. In this paper, the expression of seismic passive earth pressure acting on inclined rigid retaining wall is derived considering the non-linear failure surface. The Horizontal Slices Method with limit equilibrium technique has been adopted to establish the nonlinearity of rupture surface. Detailed discussion of results with variation of several parameters like angle of internal friction (Φ), angle of wall friction (δ), wall inclination angle (α) and surcharge loading (q) have been conducted.
Keywords:––Active earth pressure, Passive earth pressure, Φ backfill, rigid retaining wall, wall inclination, curvilinear rupture surface.
|7.||Analysis of Secret Sharing & Review on Extended Visual
Ch. Priyanka, Prof.Thaduri VenkataRamana, T.Somashekar
Visual cryptography (VC) schemes hide the secret image into two or more images which allows the encoding of a secret image into shares distributed to participants. The secret image can be recovered simply by stacking the shares together without any complex computation involved. An extended visual cryptography scheme (EVCS) is a kind of VCS which consists of meaningful shares (compared to the random shares of traditional VCS. In this paper, a color visual cryptography scheme producing meaningful shares is proposed. These meaningful shares will not arouse the attention of hackers. The proposed scheme utilizes the halftone technique, cover coding table and secret coding table to generate two meaningful shares show that the proposed embedded EVCS has competitive visual quality compared with many of the well-known
EVCSs in the . Comparative analysis have demonstrated that the new scheme is perfectly applicable and achieves a high security level.
Keywords:––Secret Sharing Extended Embedded system, visual cryptography, Halftone Coloring.
|8.||A New Integrated Machine Learning Approach for Web Page Categorization
Clustering is an unsupervised task whereas classification is supervised in nature. In the context of machine learning, classification of instances of a dataset is carried out by a classifier after the classifier is made to learn the model from a training dataset. The training data consists of instances which are labeled by a human expert. The labels are the classes into which the instances of the dataset are divided and are fixed by the human expert. The essence is that human intervention is required in the form of preparing the training data for the machine to carry out the task of classification. Clustering of large datasets is universally accepted as a difficult problem, since it tries to group instances together, without the helping hand of the human supervisor. Also, the time complexity of algorithms such as K-Medoids is unacceptably high, even for moderately large datasets. The work reported in this paper aims to integrate both clustering and classification and test approach in the domain of web page categorization. Rather than using training data created by a human expert for classification, clustering is used in preparing the training data for the classifier.
Keywords:––Classification, Clustering, Web Search, Snippets